Back in history, there had been very different reasons for migration of the so-called late German repatriates that re-migrated from states of the former Soviet Union: Some of them fled in the early modern period to Russia because of their dissenting faiths, others were called into the then Russian Empire by the tsars, especially tsarina Catherine, who promised them a bunch of privileges such as tax exemption, exemption from military service, and religious freedom.
Accordingly, religious affiliations of this group within Christianity are very diverse. Some of them belong to small protestant communities, like the Mennonites, others identify as Lutherans. This diversity is the subject of a radio feature produced by local radio station WDR5. This feature also highlights the precarious position of ethnic Germans after the creation of Soviet-Russia in 1918. CERES-researcher Frederik Elwert provides insight into their religious life, which still shows some specific characteristics, even after the re-emigration to Germany from the 1960s on.